Panama 2009

Cueva Boca De La Encantada. Photo Cobbett

Panamanian Cave Exploration


Until 2001 no serious cave exploration work had taken place throughout Panama, with one caving book on world sites casually remarking that there are no caves to be found in Panama.  In 2001, Keith Christenson (NSS), involving a locale under the “Panama Caves Project” banner, explored a number of caves within day-trip range of Panama City, and also some caves near the border with Costa Rica, with support from cavers from the USA.   James Cobbett, recently resident in Panama, was introduced to Keith in 2002. James initially explored with Keith, and then extended this work, after Keith’s departure from Panama in 2004.  One particular cave, close to Panama City, is Bill Baileys Bone Cave (named by James): Bill Bailey (USA) was the first to record this site and report on its status.  James organised the first serious expedition to explore caves in Panama in 2005, and, has pushed both the present longest and deepest caves in the country.  In 2009 we discovered and explored Panamas largest underground chamber. Other individuals have studied aspects of caves but none can be said to cave solely for the thrill and enjoyment of exploration. 

 

Very many miles from Bocas De La Encantada

Before we go further sincere thanks are necessary for the help and support so freely given by so many people.  Special thanks go to Marilyn and James Cobbett for their continued overwhelming hospitality. In particular Marilyn who only smiled when told, once she had noticed, that the absence of most of the rear bumper on her Mitsubishi was entirely due to Pat hacking it off with a machete to enable him to dig underneath it during one of the many times it sank in the mud. To Salome and the inhabitants of the villages of Boca De La Encantada and Boca De Tulu for their warm welcome, hospitality and their guidance around the area. To all those, young and old, who dug, pulled and pushed our vehicles out of the endless muddy morass.


To the several lone anonymous horsemen encountered during our searching the countryside who kindly, but amusedly, lead very hot and tired cavers to enticing cool cave entrances.


To Angel Brennan, (Irish descendant), who was an excellent contact and friend who supported the team when things became seriously bogged down an awful long way away from anywhere. It was Angel who supplied a good deal of the help and liaison with the villagers of Boca De La Encantada and Boca De Tulu. To the Speleological Union of Ireland for its financial support.


From my own point of view my sincere thanks go to each and every member of the team who never complained and when things became really difficult got on with the task in hand. It is indeed quite a thrill to get a good team together and achieve some level of success with a large amount of fun and enjoyment. Once again I’d like to offer my thanks to the wives and partners of the team for their patience and support toward these projects and adventures. To my wife, again I’m constantly amazed at her support and encouragement, after all this time.


Pat Cronin, Doolin, Ireland, 2009
 

Conor digging the 4 x 4 out, again. Photo Cobbett

The  Team consisted of 

Pat Cronin, 
Leader, Irish, cave diver, first aider, rescue warden.

Conor McGrath, 
Irish, Vertical Technician, first aider, photographer, rescue warden.

James Cobbett, 
British, cave diver, first aider, translator, photographer.

Dig Hastilow, 
Irish, cave diver, first aider, photographer, pilot.
 

Pat Cronin, Conor McGrath, James Cobbett & Dig Hastilow
Valley entrance to Cueva Pueblo Nuevo
 

An overview of the 2009 trip
Compiled from the personal notes and diaries of the team.
 

 

 

The expedition date of February was chosen with the ever optimistic outlook that the dry season would be enjoyed and the practical problems associated with the normal heavy rainfall such as muddy paths and tracks avoided.  The previous trip in October 2006 was reasonably successful, however due to certain circumstances the survey data was lost. Therefore part of the proposed return trip was to spend time re-surveying the caves to complete this outstanding task and to investigate the area further such as moving diving operations to the upstream sump in Domingo’s 2 (Perseverance Pot) and investigate the relationship of the hydrology surrounding  Nibida and Ol’ Bank Underworld. 


However, during the lead up to the proposed trip James Cobbett (Our man in Panama) had been making ongoing extensive enquiries and reconnaissance trips to areas that had been reported in the press and received by word of mouth to have cave entrances. Some of these reports turned out to be enticingly accurate and so hurried international communications took place to decide where to explore first.  Even though the areas were quite wide spread there was the guarantee of caves so a flexible approach to the exploration program was prepared; to allocate several days to each area to assess and explore anything found. Armed with this information plans were adjusted and the trip began.

The teams from Ireland and the UK assembled in Panama City on the same day and commenced immediately to review the latest information and previously made plans. The news that James imparted was of yet more reports of cave entrances along with sites he’d previously visited with members of his extended family. Gradually a firmer plan became clear and the apportioning of our time across the country to check out each area.

Our initial departure was delayed a day whilst confirmation was sought from Angel Brennan about his availability for the Boca De la Encantada journey. So we took advantage of this to carry out an aerial survey of the area.  A helicopter was hired for two hours from a local company. The vista that met us was one of cultivated ground surrounding the Panama City with increasingly dense jungle cover the further west we flew, with the occasional towering rock outcrop projecting through the vast green carpet beneath us. On arrival over the area (we knew we were there from the Lat and Long position indicated on the GPS ) we noticed the many small to large rivers that bisected the jungle cover, the obvious method for ease of travel throughout the ages. What gradually dawned on us, from our vantage point, were the few roads or tracks on the approach to Boca De Tulu and Boca De La Encantada.
 

Flight path approaching Boca De la Encantada. Photo McGrath

The village and area of Boca De La Encantada was to be our first investigation partly owing to the availability of Angel who was accommodating us in among his busy schedule. The journey was fraught with vehicles becoming regularly stuck in the muddy conditions. With the vehicles abandoned some of the team and the equipment proceeded on horseback.
 

Returning to the village of Boca De Tulu. Photo Hastilow

Eventually we arrived at Boca De La Encantada and received a warm welcome that remained constant until we left several days later. During our search of the area we were shown the resurgence cave of the Rio Boca De La Encantada. (See cover photograph Cueva Boca De La Encantada) This was explored and surveyed to a large sink entrance making it a pleasant through trip, even with the thousands of bats. Further searches in the immediate area revealed no more substantial cave features.  Concerns for recovering the vehicles and getting back to tarmac were expressed as we listened each night to the heavy rainfall. Our return to the vehicles was on horseback and the ensuing road trip through severe muddy conditions and torrential rain showers was successful up to a point. The point being leaving one of the 4 x 4’s along the track; to be recovered later.


We finally arrived in Penonome as night fell. After we had offered our thanks to Angel we said our goodbyes and went to look for a bar and bed for the night leaving the sorting of the mud encrusted car and kit for the morning.  Over breakfast we agreed that we should visit a laundry and find a garage to wash the mud from the car and investigate the damage. Nothing too serious was found, beyond the rear bumper that had been hacked off by machete to escape the mud. So after a shopping trip to replace some destroyed clothes and footwear we set off for the Azuero Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean. After a long drive we eventually arrived at Tebario, a small village, situated near to the west coast of the Azuero Peninsula. In the early evening we established base at a small motel and walked over to the Pacific for a swim and surprisingly found a small bar on our way back. Back at the motel, following a pleasant evening meal, our discussions with the owner provided us with additional information about caves in the immediate area. With a good breakfast we set off toward the area James had previously identified as worth a look.  After leaving the car we shouldered the equipment and set off. Just beyond a river we forded we fortunately encountered another lone rider on horseback that took pity on the hot and sweaty explorers and guided us to three entrances, two of which were very exciting. The first cave entrance, Cueva Los Muertitos, was in the bottom of a large sink area accessed by climbing down into the deep cutting that was the dry streambed. The two entrances quickly joined at a large rift that diverged at the bottom of a short climb. The two streamways each terminated a sump.


The second entrance, Pozo Epcionante, relatively close to Cueva Los Muertitos, is a large open rift that narrows as it descends steeply to a sump,. The third cave, Cueva Dos Quebradas, is situated some 500 metres away at the bottom of a steep sided wooded valley. Having got the feel for the area around Tebario the team decided it was worth returning to in the future expanding the search area to the adjacent valleys. 
 

Chiquiri Arriba.  Photo Hastilow

The large pinnacle formations that surround Chiquiri Arriba have been described in print (Lonely Planet Guide) as being similar in appearance to the conical limestone formations in China. Certainly the panorama we witnessed just before the evening rain storm descended upon us looked remarkably like it.  Even though we were only at some 400 metres altitude the lush vegetation did give us an obvious clue to the volume of rain regularly experienced. We had already been told of one cave entrance within a mile or so of our chosen accommodation. Once more following our questioning of the manager we were told of more caves. 


Later that evening a local guide appeared in the bar, summoned by the manager to explain further the details of the cave locations. Unfortunately the guide was describing the same cave that we already knew of.  Still we enquired of his availability for a trip the next day when we received more bad news.  The surface condition of the track to the area of the cave entrance was not capable of sustaining a vehicle, and also there were no horses available. The route beyond meant a walk of approximately another mile. 


So, another team conference was held and as conditions were unlikely to improve quickly in this area we arranged to depart for the next area San Juan De Dios, Cocle.


In the national press, a 2006 article described persons unknown removing archaeological artefacts by the suitcase from a cave. The accompanying photograph showed a low ceiling chamber with a large pool of water in the foreground that covered most of the available floor space. The cave, identified as Cueva Los Reyes, is on the bend of a river some eight metres above the path that follows the riverbank.  The two small entrances lead immediately to a small cavity in a sort of decomposing sandstone.  The published photograph was not of this cave, which was limited to a low, three metre, dry chamber. The sandy floor may well have had something stored on it. The whole cavity and both entrances appear to have been dug by man. A check upstream and downstream of the site did not show any obvious limestone occurrence. Disappointed with this site we turned our attention to the next area, Lago Bayano; on the road to Darien.
 

Lago Bayano. Photo Cobbett

To reach the area previous checked by James involved leaving the car at the Kuna (Indian) check point and crossing the lake by canoe. This lake is sufficiently large to be alarmingly influenced by wind conditions. The several houses that make up Pueblo Nuevo are situated on the shore of the lake at the entry to the dry river valley. We visited Cueva Pueblo Nuevo as much for a tourist trip as to get an idea of what could be found in the area. A well decorated active stream cave, with a great many bats, is followed to a low crawl, to the right a muddy wriggle then a small climb accesses a high level passage that meanders through more well decorated grottos to a rift that opens to the surface via a five metre climb.

Dig Hastilow, James Cobbett & Bat, Cueva Pueblo Nuevo. Photo McGrath


Our intention was to look at a sink upstream from Cueva Pueblo Nuevo; here James had previous carried out a solo exploration of a low roomy passage for some twenty metres, wisely turning at this point.  Dropping into the entrance we were confronted by a large amount of recent flood debris that had blocked the entrance. The excitement here was the discovery of a pit viper (looking like a pile of leaves) sharing our kitting up area.


Moving further upstream we followed the path to a point where the low limestone ridge disappeared away into the distance. Exploration along the ridge was made difficult by the thorny nature of the ground cover, one member of the team receiving a thorn through his palm.


It was here that a sharp eyed James noticed a minor cleft that turned out to be nothing of interest, however just above it was another small opening. This lead the team via a low crawl into a small well decorated chamber, then a small scramble over large boulders and down a slope to another entrance that was once the wall of a six metre high chamber. There, placed on a large flat stone, were the remains of two large bowls, one intact, containing human remains. Several jaw bones are visible from the photographs, both small and larger.  In the floor adjacent to the remains there is evidence of excavation, similar to those areas noticed in Bill Bailey’s Bone Cave.
 

Cueva Del Cementario with what appears to be an ossuary. Photo Hastilow

Feeling rather stunned and pleased at this significant discovery we surveyed the cave and photographed the archaeology so as to forward this evidence to the appropriate authorities. It may be that the remains are pre-Columbian.


Just as we were about to complete the caves location details we were urgently summoned by a visitor to assist with a tourist party visiting Cueva Pueblo Nuevo who were in some difficulty. The matter was resolved without too much of a problem.


The return journey across the lake became quite exciting as the wind picked up and the waves increased. 

The Limestone area adjacent to Lake Madden was the final area to be investigated. A sump previously noted inside the smaller of the two entrances to Bill Baileys Bone Cave required investigation by cave diving. This flooded section of deep rift passage turned out to have dried away entirely and a dry exploration was made of a passage that leads back underneath the entrance, the end of which contains a well decorated grotto. A thorough exploration was then carried out throughout the rest of the cave system. A small crawl beneath a stalagmite formation leads into an arched passage that follows the joints closely. At the point where a small chamber has developed a low level hole opens onto a seven metre pitch that drops into a lower rift passage similar to that of the dried sump passage. The whole of this sandy floored system is strongly joint controlled with regular calcite formations. Many bats and large cockroaches are present.

Summing up the trip, the team had explored almost a kilometre of cave passage and the largest chamber so far recorded in Panama. The most promising areas, though widespread, were prioritised and visited with reasonable results this made best use of our time and manpower. The tracks in the mountains were troublesome but offered the team valuable experience. On the whole the team considered that its worthwhile returning to press further into the areas the edges of which we had only touched upon.


Archaeological finds


Bill Baileys Bone Cave 
Anecdotal evidence referred to containers positioned along the sides of the low passage. During our exploration and surveying of the cave passages only two minor pieces of pottery rim were noticed, no other items were observed.  In several places however a uniform deposit on the cave floor appeared to suggest that something had decayed to dust there.
 

 

The larger of the two pottery rim remains found in Bill Baileys Bone Cave.
The dimensions are some five inches by two inches. Photo McGrath

Average passage shape between both entrance areas. Photo McGrath

Cueva Del Cementario

These photographs were forwarded to Dr Richard Cooke of the Smithsonian Institute Panama. From these images he has the impression that the remains are a significant ossuary, probably pre-Columbian perhaps as much as one thousand years old. PC observed that the area of the ossuary was very dry; probably from the fact the sun directly enters the area, the effect of which is like an oven this perhaps suggests the fragile yet dry nature of the remains. Dr Cooke and his colleagues propose to carry out an excavation at the site as soon as time allows. It is hoped that members of the team will be on hand to assist.

The only complete container, some 16 inches in diameter; the bones all appear to be very fragile.
The remains in the background are of a larger pot, the contents almost in a pile upon the dirt floor. 
In the far background, against the wall of the cave is evidence of a minor excavation. Photo Hastilow

View demonstrating the thickness of the bone structure.

Photos Hastilow

Third section of pot found adjacent to the other; some sixteen inches in diameter

Logistics

Hydration / Water Quality
The levels of heat and humidity can verge on debilitating so regular hydration is paramount. Water was treated with purification tablets whenever replenished.  No one ventured far without a water supply.

Geology
A study of the Geological map of Panama initially brings to the caver a feeling of despair. There appears to be very little Limestone present.  Ongoing research is beginning to suggest a pattern of isolated outcroppings.  As time passes and further rumours and legends of cave entrances are investigated a more accurate picture may appear.    
        
Weather

The dry season, if one can describe it as so, is from approximately December to April therefore the trip was based on this. Unfortunately rain almost stopped our play, turning the track surfaces into a quagmire that varied in depth from several inches to several feet. Cave flooding was never a problem, though whilst in the lower confined passages of Cueva Los Muertitos the thought did cross the surveyor’s minds more than once. There is an average annual rainfall of 223,760 million litres, (source, Panama Canal Authority).

Accommodation
This varied from sleeping on wooden beds in wooden huts to one evening being benighted in a small hotel in the mountains north of Penonome.  The costs obviously varied enormously, though never what you could call expensive for what was on offer.

Food
Quality and quantity were good to excellent, no problems were experienced by any one the team following consumption. There are many cafes in which excellent food is available, likewise the coffee.

Guides
These, when available, were readily used and greatly reduced the amount of time lost in locating cave entrances, the costs were very favourable when set against the time and effort saved.

Medical
Following the previous occasion where one of our team experienced Leptospirosis with its accompanying kidney failure and dialysis procedure, we all opted for Doxicyline, an anti malarial drug with an antibiotic that would substantially reduce the chances of contracting Weil’s disease. It is most likely that the use of this combination assisted with the avoidance of problems with suspect drinking water supplies, though this is only an educated guess. There were some side effects when Doxycycline was inadvertently taken prior to a meal, the most common being nausea that lasted for up to an hour or so. Another member, using Doxycyline, experienced an increase in the level of white blood cells for several months; this was discovered during an annual medical, this effect also gradually returned to normal.


One of the team experimented using a source of Brewers Yeast to fend off insects, this seemed to work. The others endured various bites of various sizes. Another member had a substantial thorn removed from the palm of his hand after attempting to stop himself falling down a small cliff face by gripping the trunk of a small tree, an inadvisable act. 
Several members narrowly avoided a sleeping Slender Hog-Nosed Pit Viper when preparing to enter an entrance. We know for certain it was this species of snake, having researched it in the handy, “Big Boys I-Spy Venomous Snake Book” back at James library.

Maps
1; 550 000 (tourist) were used for general location of areas and basic navigation. 1:50 000 were used for greater detail. However the 1:50 000 are based on aerial photographs and are represented by numerous contours, which make it difficult when attempting to navigate precisely when airborne. 

Flights
The team assembled in Panama City from the UK via Holland and Ireland via Newark, USA.  A lot of delay was experienced via the states with the very many security checks so be aware of this when booking connecting flights.

Helicopter
A helicopter was hired for two hours to investigate some of the river patterns noticed on the 1:50000 maps. These suggested that several large rivers rose and sank along their length (similar to the river disappearances and re-appearances in the Gort Area, Co Galway, Ireland). The aerial search proved inconclusive over the areas previously noted. However what became invaluable was the first hand knowledge of the terrain we expected to encounter.

Horses
These small tough creatures, with leg at each corner - does not say “woof”, were rented locally. Those who had never ridden before quickly learnt without problems, at least, not for the rider that is. This mode of transport was the only one capable of reaching Bocas De La Encantada; it is not possible to drive to Boca De La Encantada.

Walking
Footwear was a personal choice and varied from Gortex Jungle boots to caving Wellingtons.  Any progress through the undergrowth requires caution; many plants protect themselves one way or another, by thorny coverings or by chemicals.

Caving
All wore an overall following last year’s experience of enduring scratches one of which gave a team member Weil’s disease. Each had a normal helmet with an led light powered by Duracell batteries these gave a satisfactory service in the size of cave passage encountered. Boots were both a walking sort and wellingtons.


Canoes
These were used to access the southern shores of Lago Bayano; they were surprisingly stable and buoyant in the rough conditions crossing the lake.


Equipment SRT
Two sets of SRT gear was taken out along with 1 x 10 metre rope, 1 x 15 metre rope to complement the two longer ones already out there. Alas the sixty metre Bluewater and the ten metre ropes were destroyed during the repeated acts of recovering the Mitsubishi.

Equipment Cave Diving
Apart from the diving gear flown out, two four litre cylinders were left in Panama from the previous trip; lead was used from James equipment collection. The compressor gave some trouble but after replacing a stage its performance improved.

Rescue
There is no cave rescue organisation in Panama.  However, an underground incident occurred in Cueva Pueblo Nuevo. The inexperienced tourist party knew we were inland exploring and contacted us for help to recover a female casualty who had fallen from a short ladder pitch; in the time the team arrived the casualty had been extricated and was recovering in the small local village, she appeared to be quite well with no apparent ill effects from her adventure. 

G.P.S.R’s
The team used two Garmin’s. These were regularly checked for synchronicity. Of particular note is the Garmin eTrex Vista Hcx. In very dense foliage in very narrow valleys it performed very well. All sites were recorded in Latitude and Longitude.

Surveying
Suunto clino, compass and tape, measured to the nearest centimetre, with passage dimensions measured off the centreline.

 

 

The Caves

Cueva Los Muertitos (“Cave of the Dead Children”)
N07’ 42.882 W080 56.828
Length 418 metres
Depth 22 metres
This cave is located near Tebario, on the western side of the Azuero Peninsula.


Two entrances soon join and form a large rift passage six metres high. From the obvious junction a low crawl to the right leads to a small chamber filled with flood debris. A small hole in the roof leads into another high rift to another large junction, hereafter called the main junction.  Upstream the passage forms a rift again and can be followed back to the entrance junction.  A low crawl leads away and after a hundred metres terminates at a deep sump pool that has been plumbed to two metres. 

Downstream from the main junction the passage alternates from being an arched roof and high rift. From a point just below the main junction a lower passage follows the exposed limestone just below the upper passage development. This finally ends in a low small crawl that also terminates as a sump. This sump appears to be the main route of drainage and the nature of the approach passage suggests a long dive. There are an awful lot of bats in this cave.
 

 

Pat Cronin, Sump One, Cueva Los Muertitos.

Photo McGrath

James Cobbett, entrance passage, Cueva Los Muertitos. Photo Hastilow

Sleepy Snake Sink
N09’ 4.419   W078’ 48.349
Length 4 metres (Previously noted as 20 metres)
Approximately two kilometres upstream from Cueva Puerto Nuevo, Lago Bayano; where a dry stream bed crosses the path. Sixty metres down this streambed is the entrance. During a previous recon trip James had carried out a solo exploration of this constricted sink for 20 metres and at this point the cave passage was seen to continue as a similar size. On our arrival the passage just inside the entrance had been blocked by flood debris. An examination of the blockage suggested a long term dig to access the passage beyond.

 

A Slender Hog-nosed  Pit Viper, (the leaf on the rock) at Sleepy Snake Sink. Photo McGrath

Cueva Del Cementario (“Cemetary Cave”)
N                        W  
Length 32 metres
Depth  2 metres
Situated some two hundred metres downstream from Sleepy Snake Sink and six metres above the path where a wire fence crosses it. This small entrance crawl leads to a large passage that has many large boulders present along with very pretty formations. A small climb up through the boulders gives the explorer a balcony view of a much larger entrance within which are the remains of at least two funereal pottery containers. 

N. B. 
No Latitude and Longitude were taken at this cave entrance due to the team responding to an urgent request for emergency assistance. A situation had occurred to a group of people visiting Cueva Pueblo Nuevo. A woman had fallen from a height of about five metres and had sustained a suspected lower back injury. The team are pleased to report that the casualty’s outcome had a satisfactory ending. 

 

 

Pat Cronin, Cueva Del Cementario. Note disturbed floor area adjacent to wall of cave. Photo Hastilow

Cueva Boca De La Encantada (see photo cover of this report)
N08’ 52.717   W080’ 20.795
Length 188 metres
Depth 18 metres
This cave is the resurgence for the Rio De La Encantada, which flows past the village of Boca De La Encantada. The four metre square entrance has a water depth of one and a quarter metres. This passage has many large formations along its length to where a shaft enters from the surface sixteen metres high. From here the passage narrows into a rift partially blocked by the remains of old trees. A short climb of five metres and an exposed traverse gives access to a large chamber eighteen metres in diameter that also has many substantial tree remains present. A further climb of three metre to the left of the log jam enters a low stooping section of passage for ten metres here the passage almost attains its previous dimensions for the remaining thirty five metres to the huge entrance.  The stream enters the caves from a small passage at floor level. Entry into this passage was difficult due to the volume of bats leaving at the time. A small chamber gives way to a passage that is blocked again by tree remains. Outside the cave a huge log jam at the site of the stream sink completely blocks access. Several small holes were investigated with no success.
 

 

 Conor McGrath,  Shaft entrance Cueva Boca De La Encantada. Photo Hastilow

Bill Baileys Bone Cave
N 09’ 13.710   W079’ 36.63 (Main entrance)
Length 176 metres
Depth 8 metres
Information of this site was received from Bill Bailey. A low flat topped limestone bluff surrounded by dense scrub can be easily ascended. The cave has two entrances. JC’s entrance is a low crawl that gives access immediately to a large entrance chamber that leads to a rift that contains a deep pool. Preparations to dive this site were in vain as the pool had dried away allowing access to a collapsed area.


From the balcony opposite the entrance a low crawl beneath a stalactite formation leads on via a series of low passages to the other entrance which is seven metres high by four metres wide. The entrance is partially obscured from outside by a large boulder fall.


Throughout the passages there is evidence of pottery containers, only small shards, but some exhibit rims and other features, these few items were left in situ. Evidence in the form of string laid along the cave passages from the entrance and further inside the cave a substantial rope that descends a small shaft of seven metres, demonstrates exploration by modern visitors. This is further substantiated by the numerous excavations of the floor throughout the cave. There are many bats present.
 

 

Conor McGrath, Bill Baileys Bone Cave. Photo Cronin
An example of the network of passage shape that connect to two entrances

Cueva Los Reyes
N 08’ 33.901   W080’ 12.121
Length 3 metres
Depth 0 Metres
This cave was noticed from a press article and was reported to be large and roomy, supported by an accompanying photograph showing a lake in a chamber. The article went on to say that artefacts had been removed by the suitcase-full, over a period of time.  On our arrival the two small entrances lead immediately into a small chamber three metres in diameter and some one and a half metres high. Its dry, accessible position well above river flood levels could well have given it the required qualifications for a repository of artefacts but as there is no evidence whatsoever present this can only remain speculation.
 

 

Dig Hastilow, Cueva Los Reyes. Photo McGrath

Pozo Epcionante (“Disappointment Pot”)
N07’ 42.838   W080’ 56.873
Length 35 metres
Depth 12 metres
A large rift opening leads steeply down to a sump. 
This site is quite close to Cueva Los Muertitos.

 

         Pat Cronin, Pozo Epcionante. Photo Hastilow

Cueva Dos Quebradas (“Two Stream Cave”)
N 07’ 42.673 W080’ 56.803
Length 45 
Depth 4 metres
Situated in the bottom of a narrow steep side valley; close to Cueva Los Muertitos
In the very bottom of the dry stream bed a large open rift drops down three metres and leads via a short crawl to a rift. After a short distance flood debris partially blocks the passage, the rift continues beyond for another ten metres to a further flood debris blockage. 
 

 

Conor McGrath,   Cueva Dos Quebradas

Photo Cobbett

 

References

Panama 2003
Panama 2006
Cobbett. J.S.
Cronin. P.C.
Hastilow. D.
McGrath. C.
Bailey. B.
Dr Cooke. R.
Christensen. K.
 

 

Report: Cobbett, McManus, Harper H., Harper R.
Report: Cobbett, McGrath, Hastilow, Cronin.
Personal notes
Personal notes and diaries
Personal notes and diaries
Personal notes and diaries
Personal communications – Cobbett JS
Personal communications - Cobbett JS
Personal communications - Cobbett JS
 

 
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